J.K. Rowling’s “The Casual Vacancy”: a socialist manifesto or just dull Mugglemarch of the 21st century?
The Casual Vacancy is a book about the conflict between the personal and the public, as small town politics come to dominate the characters’ lives. There is a battle to reassign a local council estate to a larger town, with a lot of resentment from the Pagford residents towards the Field Estaters. The embodiment of the Estate is the Weedon family, the mother is a sex worker and a heroin addict, with a young son, who is constantly under threat of care, and finally the daughter, Krystal Weedon. Krystal is a sixteen year old school child, who attends the Pagford school, mixing with middle-class kids. The question we’re posed is one of responsibility. Should the estate residents take responsibility for themselves, for their unemployment and drug addictions? As one character says, and you might imagine Jeremy Kyle right now, “It’s their choice. […] Nobody makes them take drugs.” (TCV p.387) Or should the Pagford residents show compassion and keep open the methadone centres and support for the estate?
This question is a very interesting one to consider in modern day Britain in the face of austerity cuts, and Iain Duncan Smith’s proposal to cap child benefits to only two children per family.
So what conclusion does Rowling come to? As a friend of the Brown family and as someone who was once on Job Seekers’ Allowance (JSA) herself, we might expect her to be firmly on the side of the Field residents. And it’s true that she does evoke sympathy for the Weedon family, but it’s not quite that simple.
Rowling refutes the claim that it’s “their choice.” It’s easy to simplify situations that you know nothing about. At first we see Terri Weedon in this way. We meet her daughter, Krystal, who clearly has issues and then we switch scene and learn her mother is a heroin user. “Aha!” thinks the reader, “It’s always the mother’s fault.” But then we learn that Terri’s life was horrific, being raped and abused by her own father, and running away from home at sixteen. Suddenly things aren’t so simple, and pointing the finger of blame becomes increasingly hard. It becomes clear that the only way to help people is to break the cycle before the next generation is exposed to horrors.
This is made explicit when we learn more about Robbie Weedon at three years old. “He’s developmentally delayed. His language skills are very poor. He doesn’t like men coming into the nursery. When fathers turn up, he won’t go near them. […] And once or twice, he’s mimicked what are clearly sexual acts on or near little girls.” (TCV, p.341)
When trauma becomes engrained in young minds, then “choice” is removed from them. Like Robbie, the children will be developmentally delayed, and we know that children from poorer backgrounds areon average less developed than those from wealthy homes. This makes them less likely to do well at school and education is key to climbing the social ladder. But abuse often leaves children with mental disorders: depression, anxiety, PTSD. Doors are closed all around them, and often the easiest path to tread is the one you see all those around you walking.
50 Shades of Grey has captured the imagination of Western women (or so we’re told) and opened up the world of BDSM to bedrooms all across Britain and America. But the ideals of love, romance and sex that EL James is promoting are highly troublesome. And not because it’s BDSM, but because she trashes the name of BDSM and encourages a dangerous sexual discourse, where safety words are ignored and one partner is scared rather than aroused during sexual interplay.
For those who have not read the book, let me briefly summarise the first book, which I will be focusing on. Virgin Ana meets Christian Grey, multi-millionaire and self-proclaimed sadist. They soon engage in a sexual affair, which quickly turns from vanilla to kinky BDSM. Ana feels uncomfortable about this but spurred on by several miraculous orgasms agrees to become Christian’s sub. Soon this relationship sours as Ana realises that she cannot be the sub Christian wants her to be, as several aspects of the BDSM lifestyle scare her, and she leaves him.
Let me stress here that my issue is not with BDSM. BDSM can be very fulfilling and perfectly healthy between two (or more) consenting partners. What EL James describes is not BDSM. It is abuse.
Any sexual relationship is built upon the consent. Consent must come first, before whips, before domination, or before vanilla sex. Without consent, what is being described is rape. Christian creates a contract with Ana that sets out their sexual relationship, to which she consents, but soon after he breaks the contract, treating it as unimportant, saying, “screw the contract!” He also makes Ana feel so scared that she can’t safe word in their final sexual exchange, which causes her to cry and run away from him, hiding in her room, and leaving him soon after. Despite this, in the second book, Christian asserts that “lovers don’t need safe words” – completely missing the mark: everyone needs a safe word, or a method of some kind to withdraw consent, to prevent rape and sexual trauma.
In one instance, she sends Christian an email saying that she doesn’t want to see him again, and in response to this he turns up (he stalks her, and therefore always knows where she is – and apparently this is romantic). He then says that he’s going to tie her up and have sex with her. If this doesn’t show little regard for consent, I don’t know what does!
A lot of the issues with Christian and Ana’s sexual relationship is that Christian pushes Ana too far, too soon, giving her little room to stand up for herself. Before Ana met Christian, she was a virgin, with absolutely no sexual experience, or even interest in masturbating. Yet soon after meeting her, he pushes her into having sex with him, and soon after losing her virginity, he turns her over and has sex with her for a second time, showing little regard for the fact that she’s sore – she can barely walk the next day! After losing her virginity, he pushes her into a BDSM relationship, showing little regard for the fact that she knows little about the lifestyle or kinks. The only knowledge she gains is through Google – one night’s research. He doesn’t try to explain fully the lifestyle, and she is still ignorant to many things even into the second book; this is shown in the scene where she re-enters the Red Room of Pain and looks through his collection of whips and toys, not knowing what they are, uncertain even what nipple clamps or butt plugs are for. Christian coerces her into the kind of sexual relationship he wants, giving Ana little time, opportunity or space to figure out what she wants. She is never allowed to learn about sex, whether vanilla or kinky, and Christian has little regard for her needs. She doesn’t want a BDSM relationship; she wants Christian and so tolerates what he wants. Some of the sexual encounters are consensual (barely) but essentially unwanted, and this is a very troubling message to put out to readers to be the epitome of romance and heightened sexuality.
Bali Rai is considered the writer of British Asian teen fiction, and it’s not hard to see why. Life bursts off the pages of his 2011 novel, Killing Honour. Rai tackles taboo subjects with incredible clarity and passion.
Rai paints Leicestershire as a diaspora space – that is a community in which the consciousness of not only the first generation immigrants is transformed, but the indigenous peoples too, each changing and shaping one another together as one cohesive whole. Location figures heavily in Killing Honour, set in and around Leicester, with local landmarks such as De Montfort Hall, Victoria Park, Queens Rd, and even Babella’s bar. Sat says that his sister “lived on the other side of Leicester, but it wasn’t far. Nothing in Leicester is.” (KH p.9) And this image of Leicester as a tight-knit community can be felt not only in the novel, but in the city itself, with art reflecting reality and vice versa.
In Rai’s novel, Britishness figures as intrinsically culturally diverse. As Rai himself says, “we should celebrate what we have in common” rather than putting our differences first. And so we see Sat drinking from a Bart Simpson mug, the family visiting Disney World and hot dogs being eaten. When Sat gets a girlfriend who is white (a union frowned upon by people from both sides of the cultural divide), he is presented as very much the modern multiculturalist, showing the transformations that have taken place between first and second generations in the diaspora space of Leicester life. Sat says of his girlfriend: “Although we were both British, Charlotte came from one culture and I was from another. We were like the same, and then different too.” (KH, p38)
Read more here! This was written on behalf of the Grassroutes Arts Project, a Leicester based project, which promotes multicultural writing in Leicester. To find out more or to attend our exhibition, read the full blog post and follow the links.
In 2004, Britain updated its legal definition of rape in an attempt to modernise the law. It was extended to include the penetration of the mouth and the anus. This was a step in the right direction, but the law is still lacking and fails to protect rape victims, concerned more with protecting the rapist – this is troubling in an age when rape is so under reported and under convicted. Some sources even claim that Britain has the worst rape conviction rate in a study of 33 countries, citing lack of funding, failure to support victims and a lack of belief in victims of rape as reasons for this. But before we delve to deeply into the failures of the system and the challenges a victim finds themselves confronted with, let’s first consider the law itself.
Under section 1(1) SOA 2003 a defendant, A, is guilty of rape if:
_ A intentionally penetrates the vagina, anus or mouth of B (the complainant) with his penis;
_ B does not consent to the penetration; and,
_ A does not reasonably believe that B consents.
We encounter our first problem in the first line. That this section is phallocentric is hardly surprising, but extremely troubling. It can only be called rape if penetrated with a penis. It can only be called rape if penetration itself occurs. This is completely ignoring girl-on-girl rape, rape that includes objects rather than a penis to humiliate the victim, and so on.
The most troubling issue and the one that I am going to focus on is the last line: “A does not reasonably believe that B consents.” This is putting the definition of rape itself into the hands of the rapist rather than the victim, which is hugely problematic and ignores the nature of rape itself.
Read the rest of this article here at my other blog, Sarah Gets Critical.
here is my journey's end: Fifty Things Wrong with Fifty Shades of Grey (see TW list bolded second paragraph)
This is the second post in my series on BDSM and feminism. My challenge to myself was to make a list of 50 reasons why the widespread appreciation of 50 Shades of Grey is not so ideal, despite the fact that I generally think women enjoying sexually explicit material is a good thing. I thought it would be difficult to think of all those things while pointing out new problems every time, not just giving examples. I was wrong. It was really easy.
Trigger warnings for discussions of BDSM, assault, child abuse, sexual abuse, rape, and stalking. Also, spoilers through 50 Shades of Grey and the sequels.
Part One: Problematic Treatment of Consent in the books
1. Ignoring consent
2. Reacting to the sentiment “no, I don’t want to have sex with you right now” by threatening to tie the speaker up, taking their clothes off, and… having sex with them.
3. Not treating safewords as important
4. Not treating contracts as important
5. Joking about the importance of safewords and contracts in a D/s relationship
6. Having a partner sign a D/s contract without telling them it isn’t legally binding
7. Not exploring and explaining limits
8. Forcibly preventing a partner from learning about their limits
9. Forcibly preventing a partner from learning about a sexual practice you are encouraging them to engage in
10. Making a romantic relationship dependent on indulging non-mutual kinks
11. Taking sexual advantage of someone who is intoxicated
12. Refusing to allow a partner to masturbate
13. Pushing someone who has never experienced any sexual interest, including maturbation, into a sexual relationship immediately after meeting them
14. Pushing someone who has never experienced any sexual interest, including masturbation, into a kinky sexual relationship immediately after meeting them despite the fact that they have no knowledge about kink
15. Refusing to allow that partner any trustworthy source of knowledge about those kinks other than yourself
16. Forcing a partner to make specific decisions about birth control based on your preferences
Let’s wrap up!
Consent is really, really important. Consent is important because it differentiates sex from rape, and consent is important because it differentiates BDSM from abuse. So in a relationship like the one depicted in this series, you would think clear consent would be the number one most important thing. You would be wrong.
The worst part of how consent is treated is that the first book actually addresses the importance of negotiated and informed consent in a D/s relationship, and then procedes to undermine it. Christian, the male love interest, tells the inexperienced (with everything about sex and her body, and clueless about the existence of kink, much less its practice) Anastasia that he’s not going to do anything without a contract and a safeword in place.
Approximately five seconds later, he says “Screw the contract” and initiates sexual contact in an elevator.
All of bullet point number two actually happens. She was joking when she sent him an email saying she didn’t want to say him again, but he thought she was serious- and his response was to show up and tell her he was going to tie her up and then to have sex with her! He also has sexual contact with her after she drinks mulitple times, despite the fact that she has a low tolerance for alcohol (of course, she’s a helpless wilting flower) and they never, ever negotiate having sex is this context.
He refuses to let her get information about BDSM (if she could, perhaps she would realize what a deeply abusive relationship she’s trapped in). She is encouraged to look it up online, despite the fact that she’s absurdly computer-illiterate and the internet is not exactly full of super-reliable information about BDSM. She literally cannot even speak to her best friend about it.
There’s nothing wrong with having sex with an inexperienced partner, and there’s nothing wrong with controlling your partner’s orgasms in a negotiated D/s context. But you probably shouldn’t do both at the same time, since she basically doesn’t know what she’s giving up, and she isn’t given any opportunity to have anything like a normal learning curve about sexual activity. Instead, she’s pushed immediately into exactly the kind of sexual relationship her partner wants, which is clearly coercive without everything else bad that’s going on.
Part Two: Other Abusive Content in the books
17. Reading a partner’s email and phone messages without their knowledge or consent
18. Physically hurting a partner without their informed consent
19. Physically hurting a partner even though it causes them fear
20. Controlling who a partner can and cannot spend time with outside of the relationship
21. Showing up at someone’s house after they’ve literally just emailed you to say they don’t want to see you anymore
22. Routinely forcing a partner to eat when they don’t want to.
Let’s wrap up!
Okay, so Christian is exhibiting some classic signs of a controlling and abusive partner here. Normally, you could cut a guy some slack due to his extremely difficult childhood, but he is literally beating her.
It’s fine to hit your partner if your partner genuinely wants to get hit, but Ana in the books is ambivalent at best about any kind of S&M or painplay. There is one extremely telling scene where she is terrified that he’s going to spank her again.
Now, as someone who’s into this sort of thing, I can say that one of the more fun parts of the whole process is the anticipation. For me, at least, it’s arousing and enjoyable to not be sure whether pleasure or pain is coming next.
That is not the same thing as fear, which is how Ana describes her feelings. She says she’s afraid of him hurting her again. That isn’t something a submissive says, it’s something an abuse victim says.
And compared to everything else he does: controlling her other relationships and her communications, stalking her, and even deciding what she can and can’t eat after she repeatedly tells him she isn’t comfortable turning that control over—it’s a clear pattern of control outside of the bounds of any kind of negotiated D/s. He is infiltrating every part of her life and abusing her emotionally and mentally… and then causing her physical pain that scares her and that she doesn’t enjoy sexually or emotionally.
That sounds like abuse to me.
Part Three: Problematic Treatment of Women and other minority groups, Feminist Fails
23. The perpetuation of the idea that a woman has no libido or sexual desire of her own until it is “awoken” by a desirable man
24. The man as aggressor and the woman as, essentially, prey
25. Refusal to utter the word “vagina,” instead referring to female genitalia as “down there,” despite the fact that male genitals are described frequently and in often-bizarrely-metaphorical detail
26. A female character who is just so skinny and naturally feminine that she forgets to eat all the time! That’s… that’s not what people do. If you regularly forget to eat, you might have an eating disorder. And you definitely need to get that looked into.
27. The good-girl cures bad-boy trope
28. Stating marriage, babies, heteronormative normalcy as the ultimate goal for a young woman and lots and lots of kinky sex with multiple partners as the ultiamte goal for a young man
29. Racial stereotyping of a young man of color (the only vaguely significant character of color) as a scary probable rapist who nice white girls must be protected from, despite the fact that his behavior (which I am totally not condoning) is much less sexually predatory than that of the white male love interest
30. Complete erasure of queer people of all types
31. Typing- that is, the idea that a man only likes women of one physical “type,” and thus that his only possible interest in these women is their physical appearance, not their personalities or anything else
32. Excusing the rape of a young boy by a woman. The one good thing the female main character does in the series is condemn the woman who raped her partner when he was 14 and question his continuing relationship with her. However, he completely laughs off her objections and the overall plot of the books somewhat normalizes his sexual abuse.
33. Presenting the only dominant female character as a rapist
34. Treating female sexual pleasure and orgasm as something bizarre
35. Treating female sexual pleasure and orgasm as something belonging exclusively to a male partner, to bestow or not as he chooses
36. Presenting a character who has never felt sexual attraction to anyone, ever, and has never masturbated, as obviously heterosexual and ignoring the asexual spectrum completely
37. Consistent devaluing of female friendships
38. Painting the normal state of relationships as a dominant man and a submissive woman
Let’s wrap up!
My biggest problem with this book is its overall treatment of minorities and serious issues. It is dismissive and gross toward female-on-male rape (the legal definition of sex between the fourteen-year-old Christian and adult Elena). Although Ana actually is horrified by it (good for her!) her partner dismisses her discomfort about it and continues a friendship with this woman afterwards.
There are a lot of nasty sexist tropes in the books, listed above.
There are no queer characters of any type, and the only character of color at all is a rapist because he is deemed an unworthy partner for the beautiful virtuous young white woman.
This is a really, really problematic book, even barring the way it treats kink and the horrifically abusive relationship between the main characters.
Part Four: Kink-Shaming
39. Treating a partner’s kinks as something unpleasant to be barely tolerated
40. Someone seeking out a partner they know will barely tolerate their kinks because of internalized kink-shaming
41. Creating the sense that a character’s kinks must stem from some “reason” and thus the idea that kinks cannot be natural
42. Associating kinks with extreme trauma from early childhood
43. Treating a kink as something very embarassing, to be kept secret under threat of legal action
Let’s wrap up!
It isn’t really Ana’s fault that she’s shocked by Christian’s kinkiness. After all, she’s completely unprepared for it. But the narrative attitude toward his kinks, and thus toward kinky people in general, is remarkably kink-shaming and sex-negative for something that’s explicitly a work of pornography.
The storyline sets up Christian’s kink as the direct result of early childhood abuse. Although kink can be influenced by trauma, and many people find it a helpful way to deal when with a consenting and enthusiastic partner, it’s hardly the only way anyone could end up a sadist.
Literally, Christian’s reason for wanting to engage in BDSM with a long string of dark-haired pretty young women is that they look like his neglectful and drug-addicted mother. The only other kinky characters who get much of a mention in the book are his ex-sub, who goes insane and chases them down with a gun, and Elena, who molested a young teenager.
This doesn’t paint a very flattering picture of individuals with an interest in BDSM. Admittedly, Ana has a normal background, but she also doesn’t have much of an interest in BDSM. She only does it to please Christian, at least at first.
Additionally, Christian’s intense shame about his kink, to the extent of making Ana keep it a secret under threat of legal action (a provision of the contract that he neglects to tell her isn’t legally binding!) adds another level of shame for the reader to associate with BDSM. Finally, the plot tends to favor Ana’s desire to marry and settle down into a vanilla, heteronormative marriage, setting BDSM as an abnormal sexual fetish which doesn’t belong in a committed and loving relationship. A large part of Christian’s discussions with his therapist revolve around trying to “cure” his kink (something his therapist rightly says he shouldn’t do), showing once again how kink is treated as abnormal in the narrative of the series.
Part Five: General Shittiness
44. The phrase “laters, baby,” which is just obnoxious. And the whole “inner goddess” thing, which deserves a special nod for its sheer terribleness
45. Generally terrible writing.
46. Lack of aftercare. The whole second book’s plot could have been avoided if Christian weren’t genuinely a terrible Dom.
47. This one part where a female character puts her hair in pigtails to make herself look like a child to protect herself from the sexual aggression of her partner. And then he totally gets that that’s why she’s doing it, and says something along the lines of “that won’t protect you.” I actually cannot.
48. Plagiarism. Since when is it totes okay to make money off someone else’s copyrighted idea?
49. Coopting fanfiction and fanworks, by and large a feminist, queer-positive practice, to make money off an unfeminist, queer-erasing work
50. People are entering into D/s relationship based off the precepts the learned in this book, which is dangerous and frightening.
Criticizing the writing has little to do with my point here, but I couldn’t resist.
Perhaps 46 would have fit in better somewhere else, but I shoved it in here. That’s right, for somebody who structures all his relationships around D/s, Christian sucks at being a Dom. Maybe it’s because he learned it all from his rapist, but he’s fairly clueless. Except for rubbing some lotion on Ana’s butt one time, he’s not very sensitive about aftercare. He leaves her alone after a scene when she’s clearly traumatized, and lets her run out without even mentioning that maybe he’s sorry or something after he beats her until she safewords. There’s also the issue of his ex-sub, who clearly is still deeply under his influence. If he’d ended the relationship in a normal way, maybe she wouldn’t be under such an extended case of subdrop related crazy.
47. It happens. I actually can’t. Like really.
I’m so in favor of fandom. I’ve been a writer of fanfiction for years and years, and was in fact in the Twilight fandom for a little while. I’ve written more D/s porn than most people have read total words in their lives. I’m even in favor of writers finding ways to make money off the fic they love so much. Selling drabbles or auctioning off prompt fills, even changing stories to be original work… I had a friend once who did it in another fandom and was published. But she changed the character’s personalities and replaced the plot entirely, just keeping some of the sexy bits that were so thoroughly celebrated. I saw a comparison that shows that something like 93% of the text of 50 Shades is word-for-word identical to the original fic, and that just rings of plagiarism… she even kept Edward and Bella’s physical appearances.
49 is probably a whole nother post, about the value of fandom, so I’ll just save it.
And I left the worst for last.
D/s is awesome. D/s is fun. Go for it if you really want to.
But don’t fucking use Fifty Shades as a guide.
Read the books if you must- obviously, I did. But read other things too. Talk to people who’ve been in the lifestyle for years. Talk to me, if you can’t find anyone more, like, knowledgeable. Use a safeword. Don’t do anything that you don’t, really, truly, deep-down want to do.
There’s nothing wrong with reading problematic porn- I’ve done it, definitely. But don’t base your lifestyle around it, and try seeking out some other things. I could recommend you some really, really good fic.
Thank you for writing this and thank you to Dailymurf for guiding me to it. I actually bought the book last week with the aim to do something similar. It’s hard to criticize something without actually having read it afterall, haha. The problem with 50 Shades that I’ve had so far in my abstract knowledge of it is that when people crit it, people use the “immoralistic” sex as a reason for it being a bad and harmful book. (Yes, a “feminist” on the radio actually said that. Immoral. Right.) What you wrote about the BDSM-shaming within the book itself was really fascinating. How can you put something forwards as a “sexy” book and then shame the sex at the same time? Mind-boggling.
And as for the erasure of non-het people and near erasure and demonising of people of colour… seeing as it’s based on Twilight (100% het, can’t call a poc character apart from Laurent, was he described that way in the book or am I just recalling the film here, but anyway he whooo was also a viscious murderer). Can’t wait to get started now.
A video about the extreme inequality between women and men in Africa.
Please watch, it is informative, affecting, and beautifully made. It shows how women are treated as men’s property in law and how they are systematically rendered powerless.